Table of Contents
13.0 Vehicles
13.1 Risks and Hazards
13.2 Responsibilities (Due Diligence) Regarding Vehicles 
13.3 Safe Driving Guidelines for All Vehicles 
13.4 Equipment Lists for Vehicles
13.5 Vehicle Maintenance and Inspections 
   13.5.1 Vehicle Maintenance
   13.5.2 Regular Vehicle Inspections
   13.5.3 Contractor's Vehicles 
   13.5.4 Rental or Leased Vehicles
13.6 Training 
   13.6.1 Loading Guidelines 
   13.6.2 Vehicle Controls and Equipment 
   13.6.3 How to Change a Tire
   13.6.4 How to Use a Hi-Lift Jack (Jack-All, Kangaroo Jack) 
   13.6.5 Starting a Vehicle with Booster Cables (Jump Start) 
   13.6.6 Winches 
   13.6.7 Fuelling Procedures
13.7 Handling and Driving Skills
   13.7.1 Braking 
   13.7.2 Parking 
   13.7.3 Reversing
   13.7.4 Crossing Streams 
   13.7.5 Towing 
13.8 Defensive Driving Skills and Attitudes
   13.8.1 General Defensive Driving Techniques 
   13.8.2 Techniques for Unpaved Roads 
   13.8.3 Weather-Related Safe Driving Techniques 
13.9 Four-Wheel Drive Vehicle Operation Guidelines 
   13.9.1 General Driving Techniques
   13.9.2 Off-Road Driving Guidelines
13.10 Resources


Drivers of vehicles are a major cause of work-related accidents and safety incidents in the mineral exploration industry. Usually these accidents and incidents are due to driver error or negligence. Therefore, by improving driver skills, attitudes, defensive driving techniques, and by reducing driver fatigue, an exploration company can expect to reduce vehicle-related accidents and incidents. Carrying appropriate equipment and good maintenance practices also contribute to improved vehicle safety. Company employees who travel in countries where roads and driving conditions are particularly hazardous should avoid driving and instead use local staff drivers or professional drivers associated with their hotel. 

When they differ, the instructions in the manufacturer's operator manual that accompany a vehicle or piece of equipment (e.g. winch or jack) take precedence over instructions in the PDAC Health and Safety Guidelines.