Land Disturbance

Table of Contents
5.1 Causes of Erosion 
5.2 Consequences of Erosion 
5.3 Methods of Erosion Control 
5.4 Minimizing Disturbances 
   5.4.1 Clearing of Vegetation
   5.4.2 Soil Conservation Trenches and Pits Managing Soil on Slopes Soil Stabilization 
   5.4.3 Vehicle and Equipment Use 
5.5 Managing Drainage and Runoff
   5.5.1 Road and Track Design Planning Location Construction Drainage Creek Crossings Track Use 
   5.5.2 Ditches and Drains 
   5.5.3 Bridges and Crossings Vegetation Management Types of Crossings
5.6 Controlling Sediment
   5.6.1 Straw Bales and Sandbags 
   5.6.2 Silt Fences
   5.6.3 Brush Barriers 
   5.6.4 Diversions and Dams
   5.6.5 Sediment Traps or Basins 
5.7 Special Terrains
   5.7.1 Arctic and Alpine Terrains 
   5.7.2 Arid and Tropical Terrains
   5.7.3 Riparian Areas 
   5.7.4 Wetlands 
   5.7.5 Beaches and Coastal Sand Dunes


This section describes the natural causes and consequences of erosion, and how exploration activities can accelerate erosion processes. It then details the steps to take to control erosion during exploration activities. In addition, it explores the unique vulnerabilities of special terrains to erosion.   

Erosion is the wearing away of the land surface in response to natural forces such as wind and rain. These forces cause the materials of the earth's surface to loosen, dissolve, or wear away, then to be transported from one place to another by natural agents. The result is a change in the shape, and often the usefulness, of the land surface.   

Erosion is accelerated by exploration activities. Understanding the causes and consequences of erosion makes it possible to better evaluate and select methods to mitigate and control the impact of exploration.