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Wildlife

Table of Contents
10. Wildlife 
10.1 Risks and Hazards
10.2 Responsibilities (Due Diligence) Regarding Wildlife
10.3 Bears
   10.3.1 Precautions and Preventions
   10.3.2 Types of Bears
   10.3.3 Bear Habitats and Signs 
   10.3.4 Tips for Project or Camp Site Locations 
   10.3.5 Food Handling and Waste Managemen
      10.3.5.1 Guidelines for Food Handling and Storage
      10.3.5.2 Guidelines for Waste Management
   10.3.6 Bear Warning Systems for Camps 
   10.3.7 Bear Response Plans
   10.3.8 Bear Behaviour
      10.3.8.1 Bear Behaviour Recognizing Signs of Stress
      10.3.8.2 Defensive and Non-defensive Bear Behaviour
   10.3.9 Bear Deterrents 
      10.3.9.1 Noise Makers
      10.3.9.2 Bear Pepper Spray 
      10.3.9.3 Firearms
      10.3.9.4 When it is Necessary to Shoot a Bear
   10.3.10 Guidelines for Bear Encounters
      10.3.10.1 Tips for Avoiding Bear Encounters on Traverses
      10.3.10.2 Bear Encounters How You Should React 
      10.3.10.3 Encounters When Bears React Defensively 
      10.3.10.4 Encounters When Bears React Non-Defensively 
10.4. Other Large Mammals 
   10.4.1 North and South America 
   10.4.2 Africa and Asia
10.5 Dogs, Cats and Monkeys
10.6 Reptiles
   10.6.1 Snakes
      10.6.1.1 Prevention and Preparation to Avoid Snakebite
      10.6.1.2 Treatment of Snakebite 
      10.6.1.3 Australian Pressure-Immobilization Technique for Snakebite 
   10.6.2 Crocodiles and Alligators 
10.7 Insects, Arthropods and Leeches
   10.7.1 Mosquitoes and Flies
   10.7.2 Bees, Wasps and Ants
      10.7.2.1 Allergic Reactions and Anaphylactic Shock
   10.7.3 Ticks
   10.7.4 Fleas
   10.7.5 Bed Bugs
   10.7.6 Triatoma Bugs 
   10.7.7 Scorpions 
   10.7.8 Spiders
   10.7.9 Leeches
10.8 Resources

Introduction

Wildlife may present a danger to field employees ranging from nuisance level to life-threatening. Depending on the location, the major risks may be large mammals, reptiles or insects and include potential attacks, bites or the diseases that result from bites. In addition to safety issues, many animals that may be encountered are endangered species and are protected by legislation. All field employees have a responsibility to avoid disturbing the environment, including animals, as much as possible.